The arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 started the European colonization of the Americas. At the Treaty of Paris peace conference the United States acquired the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam. Eventually, the knowledge began to spread northward. The 1619 project was an effort led by the New York Times and black writers to highlight the importance African slaves and black Americans had in building the US into the superpower it is today. Nor did Jackson share reformers' humanitarian concerns. A decade later, Jacques Cartier sailed in search of the Northwest Passage, but instead discovered the Saint Lawrence River and laid the foundation for French colonization of the Americas in New France. The activism of African-American leaders Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King Jr. led to the Montgomery bus boycott, which launched the movement.  This was carried out through the Lend-Lease agreements. The 1920s were called the Roaring Twenties due to the great economic prosperity during this period. The project argues that slavery was the country’s origin and out of it 'grew nearly everything that has truly made America exceptional' including economic might, industry, the electoral system, music, public health and education inequities, violence, income inequality, slang, and racial hatred. The resultant political reaction fell on the Democratic Party, whose leader President Grover Cleveland shouldered much of the blame. A national railroad network was completed and large-scale mines and factories were established. The main episode was the Spanish–American War, which began when Spain refused American demands to reform its oppressive policies in Cuba. Americans claimed victory on February 18, 1815 as news came almost simultaneously of Jackson's victory of New Orleans and the peace treaty that left the prewar boundaries in place. “Old enough to fight, old enough to vote” became a common slogan for a youth voting rights movement, and in 1943 Georgia became the first state to lower its voting age in state and local elections from 21 to 18.J… The major issues faced by Lincoln were the status of the ex-slaves (called "Freedmen"), the loyalty and civil rights of ex-rebels, the status of the 11 ex-Confederate states, the powers of the federal government needed to prevent a future civil war, and the question of whether Congress or the President would make the major decisions. As a result of growing public frustration with both parties in Congress since the beginning of the decade, Congressional approval ratings fell to record lows, with only 11% of Americans approving as of October 2013.. As time went on, foraging for berries and seeds became an important alternative to hunting. From 9,100 to 8,850 BCE, the culture ranged over much of North America and also appeared in South America. Despite being Calvinists and building the Reformed Church in America, the Dutch were tolerant of other religions and cultures and traded with the Iroquois to the north. The movement was split into factions by political ideology early on, with NOW on the left, the Women's Equity Action League (WEAL) on the right, the National Women's Political Caucus (NWPC) in the center, and more radical groups formed by younger women on the far-left. The main contributions of the U.S. to the Allied war effort comprised money, industrial output, food, petroleum, technological innovation, and (especially 1944–45), military personnel. Encouraged by the notion of manifest destiny, U.S. territory expanded all the way to the Pacific Coast. In June 2015, the Supreme Court legalized gay marriage nationally in the case of Obergefell v. Hodges. They sought to restore the independence of the individual (the "common man," i.e. The Hispanics in California ("Californios") were overwhelmed by over 100,000 gold rush miners. Three "Reconstruction Amendments" were passed to expand civil rights for black Americans: the Thirteenth Amendment outlawed slavery; the Fourteenth Amendment guaranteed equal rights for all and citizenship for blacks; the Fifteenth Amendment prevented race from being used to disenfranchise men. The severe threats of starvation and displacement of the unemployed Freedmen were met by the first major federal relief agency, the Freedmen's Bureau, operated by the Army.. The first nuclear device ever detonated was an implosion-type bomb at the Trinity test, conducted at New Mexico's Alamogordo Bombing and Gunnery Range on July 16, 1945. Many immigrants were people seeking religious freedom or escaping political oppression, peasants displaced by the Industrial Revolution, or those simply seeking adventure and opportunity. The war effort also resulted in greater political integration of the colonies, as reflected in the Albany Congress and symbolized by Benjamin Franklin's call for the colonies to "Join, or Die". In the 1960s, Cesar Chavez began organizing poorly paid Mexican-American farm workers in California. Gradually the U.S. purchased the Native American tribal lands and extinguished their claims, forcing most tribes onto subsidized reservations. Maine and Nebras… New England was initially settled primarily by Puritans fleeing religious persecution. 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While Quakers populated the city, German immigrants began to flood into the Pennsylvanian hills and forests, while the Scots-Irish pushed into the far western frontier.  Despite strong opposition from the Northeast, especially from Federalists who did not want to disrupt trade with Britain, Congress declared war on June 18, 1812.. French colonists in small villages along the Mississippi and Illinois rivers lived in farming communities that served as a grain source for Gulf Coast settlements. From 1880 to 1914, peak years of immigration, more than 22 million people migrated to the United States. Women suffragists demonstrating for the right to vote in 1913. Paleo-Indians in central Mexico were the first in the Americas to farm, starting to plant corn, beans, and squash around 8,000 BCE. Formerly, an escaped slave that reached a non-slave state was presumed to have attained sanctuary and freedom under the Missouri Compromise. Southern whites insisted that slavery was of economic, social, and cultural benefit to all whites (and even to the slaves themselves), and denounced all anti-slavery spokesmen as "abolitionists". , However, the fervor also inspired anti-Japanese sentiment, leading to internment of Japanese Americans. Paramilitary groups, such as the White League and Red Shirts emerged about 1874 that worked openly to use intimidation and violence to suppress black voting to regain white political power in states across the South during the 1870s. In some areas, Native Americans taught colonists how to plant and harvest the native crops. , Amid the Cold War, the United States entered the Vietnam War, whose growing unpopularity fed already existing social movements, including those among women, minorities, and young people. The arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 started the European colonization of the Americas.Most colonies were formed after 1600, and the early records and writings of John Winthrop make the United … Until this point, the nation was known as the "United Colonies of America". The colony established 19 permanent settlements along with many farms, extending into modern-day Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. After state election officials certify the popular vote of each state, the winning slate of electors meet in the state capital and cast two ballots—one for Vice President and one for President. In others, they attacked the settlers. To assuage the Anti-Federalists who feared a too-powerful national government, the nation adopted the United States Bill of Rights in 1791. The earliest recorded European mention of America is in a historical treatise by the medieval chronicler Adam of Bremen, circa 1075, where it is referred to as Vinland. Captain John Smith held the fledgling Jamestown together in the first year, and the colony descended into anarchy and nearly failed when he returned to England two years later. Large numbers of European immigrants (especially from Germany and Scandinavia) took up low-cost or free farms in the Prairie States. We need to convince individuals to take action on Climate Change; not in the future, NOW! Lincoln made General Grant commander of all Union armies. Reagan introduced a complicated missile defense system known as the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) (dubbed "Star Wars" by opponents) in which, theoretically, the U.S. could shoot down missiles with laser systems in space. The British sent four invasion armies.  As recent historians have explained: Gradually, liberal intellectuals crafted a new vision for achieving economic and social justice. The colony was taken over by Britain in 1664 and its capital was renamed New York City. The expansion of slavery was increasingly controversial and fueled political and constitutional battles, which were resolved by compromises. New Netherland was established in 1621 by the company to capitalize on the North American fur trade. The population density in the American Colonies in 1775. A later migration identified by linguists, anthropologists, and archeologists occurred around 8,000 BCE. , The old anti-suffragist argument that only men could fight a war, and therefore only men deserve the right to vote, was refuted by the enthusiastic participation of tens of thousands of American women on the home front in World War I. Labor unrest involved numerous strikes, most notably the violent Pullman Strike of 1894, which was shut down by federal troops under Cleveland's orders.  In addition, southern states benefited by their increased apportionment in Congress due to the partial counting of slaves in their populations. He led a five-year-long strike by grape pickers. 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